Could You Have
Adhesive Capsulitis?

Adhesive Capsulitis, also known as Frozen Shoulder, can be a debilitating shoulder joint pain condition. The pain and limitation of function can feel overwhelming. What is frozen shoulder? How does it occur? What treatment options and frozen shoulder exercises are effective?



What is Adhesive Capsulitis?

Frozen shoulder, or adhesive capsulitis, occurs secondary the creation of adhesions and fibrosis of the capsule of the shoulder. The capsule is the soft tissue envelope that surrounds the shoulder joint. Flexibility of the capsule is required in order for normal shoulder motion to occur.


Frozen Shoulder


In adhesive capsulitis, the capsule begins to thicken and in a way, becomes vacuum sealed around the shoulder joint. This change most noticeably occurs in the inferior or bottom aspect of the capsule. Although the creation of adhesions and fibrosis has a strong inflammatory component, there is also evidence of an autoimmune or systemic cause. People with a history of thyroid conditions and diabetes are more likely to have frozen shoulder.

Frozen shoulder most commonly occurs between the ages of 45 and 60 and occurs more frequently in women then in men. The onset of this condition may, but generally does not, occur secondary to a trauma.



Typical Symptoms

The most common signs and symptoms of adhesive capsulitis are pain and decreased mobility in the shoulder. The amount of pain and loss of shoulder mobility depends on the stage. There are three general stages to frozen shoulder: freezing, frozen, and thawing.

Freezing stage: generally characterized by significant pain and decreasing shoulder mobility. During the freezing stage, pain is the primary issue. The freezing stage can last 3 to 9 months. Pain is significant both at rest and with movement. Pain is specifically noted at night and can greatly interrupt sleep. Because the pain is so great, use of the arm becomes less for daily activities such as eating, dressing, and reaching.

Frozen stage: generally characterized by much less pain but significant restriction in mobility. During the frozen stage, a lack of mobility is the primary issue. This stage can last 3 to 6 months. If pain occurs during this stage it is generally not at rest but occurs with active motion. The shoulder doesn’t feel as painful but it simply does not want to move.

Thawing stage: generally characterized by a gradual return of normal shoulder mobility. Duration of this phase is variable. Generally adhesive capsulitis will improve over a total of 24 months (from freezing to thawing). Minimal pain is present during this stage and over time, shoulder range of motion returns to near normal.


Typical Treatment Protocol

The emphasis for treatment is directly affected by the specific stage of the frozen shoulder.

In the freezing stage, pain reduction is of primary importance. The use of anti-inflammatory medication (consult your doctor regarding medication) as well as the use of ice therapy can help reduce the pain and inflammation. During this stage, cortisone injections can also be helpful to reduce pain and inflammation. Although performing shoulder range of motion exercises can be helpful in minimizing the loss of mobility, pain often significantly limits stretching tolerance.

During the frozen and thawing stages, stretching and mobilization of the shoulder can be beneficial in regaining shoulder mobility. Physical therapy can be helpful to manually mobilize the shoulder joint. It is important to note that the shoulder must be stretched past the point of resistance. Unfortunately this means the stretches can be rather uncomfortable. In addition, there is some evidence that longer, lower intensity stretches are more effective then short intense stretches. Because stretching can be uncomfortable and irritating, utilizing ice after stretching is recommended.

In some cases, your doctor may recommend a manipulation. With a manipulation, the shoulder joint is forcibly moved through the range of motion while you are under anesthesia. The goal is to stretch, and in some cases, tear the joint capsule. A risk to this procedure is that the capsule may not be the only tissue stretched or torn. In some cases, manipulation is a reasonable treatment option. However, recovery from a manipulation is painful and will require dedication to post-operative physical therapy stretching.


Physical Therapy Exercise

Self stretching is vitally important to regaining normal shoulder mobility. Again, because of the nature of the condition, stretching exercises will be very uncomfortable. In order to increase mobility, the stretch must go past the point of tissue resistance.

The following is a link to a physical therapy exercise program for improving the range of motion for adhesive capsulitis: Frozen Shoulder Exercises.


Summary

• Frozen shoulder is when the capsule of the shoulder becomes thickened and fibrotic.

• Shoulder joint pain and limited range of motion are the greatest issues resulting from adhesive capsulitis.

• A frozen shoulder follows three phases: freezing, frozen, and thawing and can take up to 24 months to resolve.

• Typical treatment includes the use of ice therapy ,anti-inflammatory medication, injections, and aggressive stretching exercises.

• Follow these frozen shoulder exercises to help regain your shoulder range of motion and function.


Recovering from frozen shoulder can be long and complicated. Use of the recommendations can help guide you along the road to recovery.

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References

J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2011 Sep;19(9):536-42.Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder.Neviaser AS, Neviaser RJ

Am J Sports Med. 2010 Nov;38(11):2346-56. Epub 2010 Jan 28.Adhesive capsulitis: a review of current treatment.Neviaser AS, Hannafin JA

Isr Med Assoc J. 2004 Sep;6(9):524-6.Idiopathic adhesive capsulitis: long-term results of conservative treatment.Dudkiewicz I, Oran A, Salai M, Palti R, Pritsch M


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